• “When students and their families are believed to be the principal cause for school success or failure, teachers feel less responsible for ensuring that students achieve at high levels. They are less likely to adjust their instructional practices to meet students’ educational needs because they doubt that their efforts will pay off. To best assist students, educators should cultivate a school-based discourse that (1) emphasizes teachers’ responsibility for students’ learning and (2) challenges arguments that blame students’ struggles primarily on students’ and their parents’ supposed lack of educational investment.”