Margaret Cavendish, The Duchess of Newcastle, is an English philosopher, poet, scientist, writer and playwright.
She began a quiet life under the name Margaret Lucas, in a well-off family in rural Essex. However, when she was nineteen, she and her family were forced to flee to Oxford to seek protection from the British Civil War. The family were loyal imperialists so they were greeted by the Court, who was stationed in Oxford at the time.
Margaret was accepted as the bridesmaid for Queen Henrietta Maria. In 1644, she traveled with the Queen to Paris, where she met and fell in love with William Cavendish, the exiled Duke of Newcastle. Despite the Queen's doubts about the 30-year-old gap between Margaret and the Duke, they are happily married. They lived in Paris and Antwerp before returning to the Duke's British estates after the Restoration of the Monarchy.
But after the imperial forces were defeated at Marston Moor in 1644, the Queen and her court fled to France in exile. This flight has hurt Margaret because it is the first time she has to leave her family; moreover, it resonates with the repeating romance motif in her books, where a woman flees to unknown lands and takes many risks.
The duties of marriage put an end to the intellectual pursuits of many seventeenth century women, but Margaret was luckier. A keen poet herself, the Duke enthusiastically reread her literary endeavors and financed their publishing and performances. His brother, the mathematician Sir Charles Cavendish, realized Margaret's scientific potential and taught her the theories and experiments that were revolutionizing the world around her.
Unlike most women of the time, who wrote anonymous journalists, she published her works under her own name. Her meaning as a rhetorical theorist has two main aspects. First, she lives at a time when rhetoric and rhetorical theory are undergoing radical changes. Her articles provide a valuable source of information about some of these changes. Second, her ideas about the oratory tradition provide concrete insight into the relationship of women to that tradition at a pivotal moment in its history. Cavendish not only practices rhetoric but also records her progress, including her fears and failures, and her rhetorical ideas must be understood in this context. No work is devoted to the examination of rhetoric theory; to explore her ideas one has to sift through many of her works, especially her interfaces. She is probably more successful as an ambitious orator than a rhetoric theorist. However, a familiarity with her ideas is crucial to understanding the development of women's self-awareness in relation to the tradition, which later bear fruit in the public. The women's work seems to be more successful than her.
Cavendish explores many intriguing concepts throughout the text relating to the natural world both on the macroscopic level of astrology and the microscopic level, where she appears to be trying to articulate a concept of subatomic physics. In one part, she said “both with my own contemplation, and the Observations I have made with my rational and sensitive awareness of Nature, and her works, I see that Nature is just an infinitely moving Body, which, by the virtue of its self-movement, divided into Infinite parts, is non-stop parts, undergoing permanent changes and changes by their ingredients and their infinite division. "It feels like she's talking here about the behavior of matter, energy and gravity.
As the supreme leader, the Queen also thinks about how people should be ruled. I find it interesting that she rejects the idea of rule through tyranny because she realizes its short-term effect: “For fear, even though it makes people obey, it does not last too long and it is also not a sure means of holding them back. as to their mission, as Love. "She not only absorbed and sifted through scientific and political ideas, but also consulted various religions and sacred texts to develop from before the Queen decided to write her religious texts herself or Cabbala. To agree to be her scribe. So, she summoned Cavendish herself instead.
Cavendish has had a relentless spirit, boundless creativity, and an ego so large that she often feels resentful of her real limitations. She also yearns for fame and finds it by dressing up oddly and self-publishing many books. Cavendish's interest in fashion and building up his own distinct image is also reflected in the novel as the daring Queen seeks to sew a flashy garment made of "star stone". Everything about her unique and multifaceted personality shows that she was the one who struggled with the limits of her time.
Cavendish commented on her own experience in reading philosophical works: many such works challenged her understanding with their often confusing words and expressions. Therefore, Cavendish advises philosophers to use language that is appropriate for readers of less expertise. She defends this by saying that philosophical terms will easily convey thoughts. She believes it is possible to communicate successfully in any language and accuses people of communicating complications (especially British writers) with the aim of appreciating those who admire simple writing for their sake don't understand it, without thinking that it might be pointless. In her own work, Cavendish says, she chooses not to use difficult terms, although she adds that she understands them. Her stated reason is that she wants her job to be accessible to everyone regardless of their education level. Her purpose is to clearly convey her ideas. She asks to ignore any errors that might be found in her work and readers remain focused on her main ideas. Here, as in many letters, she instructs readers on how to approach her work and asks them to read them fully and retain criticism until they do so.
This article blow show some quotes from her
1. “I am not covetous, but as ambitious as ever any of my sex was, is, or can be; which makes, that though I cannot be Henry the Fifth, or Charles the Second, yet I endeavour to be Margaret the First; and although I have neither power, time, not occasion to conquer the world as Alexander and Caesar did; yet rather than not be mistress of one, since Fortune and Fates would give me none, I have made a world of my own; for which nobody, I hope, will blame me, since it is in everyone's power to do the like.”
2. “there is little difference between man and beast, but what ambition and glory makes.”
3. “I had rather die in the adventure of noble achievements, than live in obscure and sluggish security.”
4. “Women's Tongues are as sharp as two-edged Swords, and wound as much, when they are anger'd.”
5. “...that much gold, and great store of riches makes them mad, insomuch as they endeavour to destroy each other...”
6. “For Nature is so full of variety, that our weak Senses cannot perceive all the various sorts of her Creatures; neither is there any one object perceptible by all our Senses, no more then several objects are by one sense.”
7. “Besides, we shall want employments for our senses, and subjects for arguments; for were there nothing but truth, and no falsehood, there would be no occasion for to dispute, and by this means we should want the aim and pleasure of our endeavours in confuting and contradicting each other; neither would one man be thought wiser than another, but all would either be alike knowing and wise, or all would be fools...”
8. “...that in former ages they had been as wise as they are in this present, nay, wiser; for, said they, many in this age do think their forefathers have been fools, by which they prove themselves to be such.”
9. “each followed such a profession as was most proper for the nature of their Species, which the Empress encouraged them in, especially those that had applied themselves to the study of several Arts and Sciences; for they were as ingenious and witty in the invention of profitable and useful Arts, as we are in our world, nay, more; and to that end she erected Schools, and founded several Societies.”
10. “...though I have neither Power, Time nor Occasion, to be a great Conqueror, like Alexander, or Cesar; yet, rather than not be Mistress of a World, since Fortune and the Fates would give me none, I have made One of my own. And thus, believing, or, at least, hoping, that no Creature can, or will, Envy me for this World of mine, I remain,Noble Ladies, Your Humble Servant, M. Newcastle.”
11. “A judge, replied the Empress, is easy to be had, but to get an impartial judge, is a thing so difficult.”
12. “Adventure, and not being provided for so cold a Voyage, were all frozen to death; the young Lady onely, by the light of her Beauty, the heat of her Youth, and Protection of the Gods, remaining alive: Neither was it a wonder that the men did freeze to death; for they were not onely driven to the very end or point of the Pole of that World, but even to another Pole of another World, which”
13. “But the Duchess's Soul being troubled, that her dear Lord and Husband used such a violent exercise before meat, for fear of overheating himself, without any consideration of the Empress's Soul, left her Æreal Vehicle, and entred into her Lord. The Empress's Soul perceiving this, did the like: And then the Duke had three Souls in one Body; and had there been some such Souls more, the Duke would have been like the Grand-Signior in his Seraglio, onely it would have been a Platonick Seraglio.”
14. “By which we may see, that Novelty discomposes the mind, but acquaintance settles it in peace and tranquillity.”
15. “At which the Emperor rejoycing, made her his Wife, and gave her an absolute power to rule and govern all that World as she pleased.”
16. “Besides, said they, a Monarchy is a divine form of Government, and agrees most with our Religion: For as there is but one God, whom we all unanimously worship and adore with one Faith; so we are resolved to have but one Emperor, to whom we all submit with one obedience.”
17. “Nevertheless, although they were thinner then the thinnest vapour, yet were they not so thin as the body of air, or else they would not be perceptible by animal sight.”
18. “Phænomena's of Cœlestial Bodies”
19. “That this multitude of pores was the cause of the blackness of the Coal; for, said they, a body that has so many pores, from each of which no light is reflected, must necessarily look black, since black is nothing else but a privation of light, or a want of reflection.”
20. “..fear and wonder makes gods.”
21. “The truth is, we [women] live like bats, or owls, labor like beasts, and die like worms.”
22. “If any should like the World I have made, and be willing to be my Subjects, they may imagine themselves such, and they are such, I mean in their Minds, Fancies or Imaginations; but if they cannot endure to be Subjects, they may create Worlds of their own, and Govern themselves as they please.”
It is often said that the numerous conflicting views in Margaret Cavendish's writings prove that she is incapable of reconciling feminism with her conservative, royalist politics. In this book, Lisa Walters challenges this view and demonstrates that Cavendish's ideas are closer to republican thought, and that her methodology is the foundation of political, scientific and scientific theories. gender subversion. With an interdisciplinary focus, Walters closely examines Cavendish's work and its context, providing readers with a rich understanding of women's contributions to scientific theory, political philosophy, and literature. early modern folk culture and culture.
She was the first woman in England to write primarily for publication. Despite her stubborn traditional politics, and overly disregard for her husband, she is still able to make strong feminist claims: "Women live like bats or owls, working like beasts. and died like a worm "(Jones 1). The criticism for Margaret Cavendish surpassed the praise, but she continued to write. She published twenty-two works during her lifetime, and her modern reputation as a woman is truly remarkable. Virginia Woolf, in an essay on the Duchess, has captured the support of Cavendish readers: "Although her philosophies are in vain, and she plays intolerable, and her poetry is mostly dull, most of the Duchess is forged by an authentic vein of fire"