Elliot Aronson Quotes
“Man is by nature a social animal; an individual who is unsocial naturally
and not accidentally is either beneath our notice or more than human.
Society is something in nature that precedes the individual. Anyone who
either cannot lead the common life or is so self-sufficient as not to need
to, and therefore does not partake of society, is either a beast or a god.
Politics, c. 328 BC”
“A befolyásolhatóság legegyértelműbb személyiségváltozója az önértékelés. A meggyőzés célját szolgáló közlés jobban hat arra, akit az az érzés hat át, hogy nem felel meg, mint arra, aki elégedetten szemléli önmagát. Ez eléggé érthető, elvégre, ha valaki nem szereti saját magát, vélekedéseinek sem tulajdonít túlságosan nagy értéket. Ebből következik, hogy amikor gondolatait kétségbe vonják, nem fog makacsul ragaszkodni hozzájuk. Tudjuk, hogy az emberek arra törekednek, hogy ismereteik a valóságnak megfelelőek legyenek. Ha Sam a saját véleményétől eltérő közlést kap, amennyiben magas az önértékelése, el kell döntenie, hogy mikor lesz inkább igaza: ha álláspontját megváltoztatja, vagy ha továbbra is kitart az eredeti mellett. Ily módon konfliktust élhet át, ha nem ért egyet egy magas fokon hitelt érdemlő kommunikátorral. Ha viszont Samnak alacsony az önértékelése, akkor jóformán nem él át konfliktushelyzetet – miután nem tartja túlságosan nagyra önmagát, úgy érzi, jobb esélye van arra, hogy igaza legyen, ha elfogadja a közlő állításait.”
“Anyone who is awake nowadays knows that Republicans and Democrats seem to disagree on most issues — and neither side seems able to be persuaded by the other. Why? After analyzing the data from 44 years of studies and more than 22,000 people in the United States and Europe, John Jost and his associates86 have concluded that these disagreements are not simply philosophic disputes about how, say, to end poverty or fix schools; they reflect different ways of thinking, different levels of tolerance for uncertainty, and core personality traits, which is why conservatives and liberals are usually not persuaded by the same kinds of arguments. As a result of such evidence, some evolutionary psychologists maintain that ideological belief systems may have evolved in human societies to be organized along a left–right dimension, consisting of two core sets of attitudes: (1) whether a person advocates social change or supports the system as it is, and (2) whether a person thinks inequality is a result of human policies and can be overcome or is inevitable and should be accepted as part of the natural order.87 Evolutionary psychologists point out that both sets of attitudes would have had adaptive benefits over the millennia: Conservatism would have promoted stability, tradition, order, and the benefits of hierarchy, whereas liberalism would have promoted rebelliousness, change, flexibility, and the benefits of equality.88 Conservatives prefer the familiar; liberals prefer the unusual. Every society, to survive, would have done best with both kinds of citizens, but you can see why liberals and conservatives argue so emotionally over issues such as income inequality and gay marriage. They are not only arguing about the specific issue, but also about underlying assumptions and values that emerge from their personality traits. It is important to stress that these are general tendencies. Most people enjoy stability and change in their lives, perhaps in different proportion at different ages; many people will change their minds in response to new situations and experiences, as was the case in the acceptance of gay marriage; and until relatively recently in American society, the majority of members of both political parties were willing to compromise and seek common ground in passing legislation. Still, such differences in basic orientation help explain the frustrating fact that liberals and conservatives so rarely succeed in hearing one another, let alone in changing one another’s minds.”
- Born: The United States.
- Description: Elliot Aronson (Born January 1932) is listed among the 100 most eminent psychologist of the 20th Century, best known for his Jigsaw Classroom experiments, cognitive dissonance research, and bestselling Social Psychology textbooks. He is the only person in the 120-year history of the American Psychological Association to have won all three of its major awards: For distinguished writing (1973), for distinguished teaching (1980), and for distinguished research (1999). In 2007 he received the William James Award for Distinguished Research from APS.
Aronson has taught at Harvard University, the University of Minnesota, the University of Texas, and the University of California, Santa Cruz. He is the recipient of many honors. He was chosen by his peers as one of the 100 most influential psychologists of the 20th century, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and won the prestigious William James Award from the Association for Psychological Science for his lifetime achievements. He has won distinguished research awards from a variety of professional organizations, including the American Psychological Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Society of Experimental Social Psychologists, and others. He also won the Gordon Allport Prize for his work on reducing prejudice. In 1982 he was named "Professor of the Year" by the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education.